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高中英语语法:连词

连词 连词是一种虚词,分为并列连词和从属连词两大类。并列连词是连接主语与主语,谓语与谓语,句子与句子,分词与分词的词,它要求前后两部...

连词

连词是一种虚词,分为并列连词和从属连词两大类。并列连词是连接主语与主语,谓语与谓语,句子与句子,分词与分词的词,它要求前后两部分有相同的形式和语法作用;而从属连词一般连接主句与从句,从句形式有名词性从句,定语从句和状语从句等。

一、并列连词

并列连词可用来连接词与词,词组与词组,分句与分句。常用的并列连词有:and(和),as well as(既…又),both … and(不但…而且),not only … but also(不但…而且),not … but(不是…而是),neither … nor(既不…也不),either … or(不是…就是),or(或者),but (但是),yet(然而),for(因为),so(所以),while(而),when(这时)等。如:

Both my brother and my sister are teachers.

His room is bright but mine is gloomy(暗沉沉的).

He can not only repair radios but also fix them.

It is a glorious(光荣的)yet difficult task./ Strike while iron is hot.

二、从属连词

从属连词是指在复合句中引导从句的连结词。常见的从属连词有:

引导时间状语从句的:after, before, when, as, while, since, until, till, as soon as

引导原因状语从句的:because, since, as

引导让步状语从句的:although, though, no matter(无论), even if (though)

引导条件状语从句的:if, unless, once, so (as) long as

引导结果状语从句的:so … that …, such … that …

引导目的状语从句的:so that …, in order that …

引导比较状语从句的:as … as …, not so (as) … as …, … than …

引导方式状语从句的:as if …

引导主语,宾语或表语从句的连词主要有:that, whether, if三个。其中that 和whether间或还可以引起同位从句和状语从句。

三、某些用法比较特殊的从属连词用法区别

1、当while, when, as引导时间状语从句时的区别:

①while引导的状语从句中动词必须是持续性。谓语动词多为进行时,或状态动词的一般时。while 的这些用法可用when代替,等于 “at the time that”, “during the time that”。例如:Please keep quiet while (when) others are studying;

② when除可指一段时间外,还可用来指一点时间,等于 “at the time”,也就是说when引出的时间状语从句中的谓语动词可以是终止性的,也可以延续性的。因此主句和从句的谓语可以是一般时,进行时,或完成时。例如:When I went into the lab, the teacher was doing an experiment.(when不能换成while)He often makes mistakes when he is speaking English.(when可换成while)

③as常可与when,while通用,但强调“一边、一边”。例如:As (when, while) I was walking down the street, I noticed a police car in front of number 37.

④when引导的状语从句中的主语与主句主语一致,主、谓是“主语+系动词”结构时,这时主语和系动词可以省略。例如:When (he was) young, he worked for a rich man./ She’ll be here to give you help when (if it is) necessary.

⑤when有时代替if,引导条件句,意为“如果”、“假如”,例如:I’ll come when (if) I’m free.

2、before作连词一般表示时间,意为“在…之前”,但有些句子中这样译就显得别扭。试看以下句子的翻译:He almost knocked me down before he saw me.他几乎把我撞倒才看见我;Before I could get in a word he had measured me.我还没来得及插话,他已经给我量好了尺寸。

3、till, until作为介词式从属连词引导时间状语短语或状语从句,用于否定句时,结构为not …until (till),主句谓语动词延续与非延续皆可,意为“直到…才…”。用于肯定句时,只与延续性动词连用,表示“到…为止”。例如:They played volleyball until (till) it got dark./ They didn’t talk(延续性动词)until (till) the interpreter(译员)came./ He didn’t go to bed(非延续性动词)until (till) the his father came back.;until可以放在句首,till则不行,例如:Until the last minute of the match we kept on playing./ Not until he finished his work did he go home.(倒装);till, until只用于时间,以下句子是错误的:We walked till the edge of the forest.(要用as far as或to)。

4、because, since, as引导原因状语时注意使用上的区别:

①如果原因构成句子的最主要部分,一般用because ,因此because引导的从句往往放在句末。用why提问的句子,一定用because回答。例如:He had to stay at home yesterday because he was ill.

②如原因已为人们所知,或不如句子的其他部分重要,就用as,或 since。since比as更正式些。as和since引导的从句一般放在句子的开头。例如:As you are tired, you had better rest./ Since everyone is here, now let’s begin.

5、although和though引导让步状语从句往往用法一样,但注意以下区别:

①although用于各种文体,而though则多用于非正式的口语或书面语中。注意由although, though引导的从句后,主句不能用but,但可用副词yet, still。例如:Although/ Though it rained all the morning, they still went on working.(或yet they went on working)

②though常与even连用,even though表示强调,意为“即使”,但不能说even although,例如:Even though I didn’t understand a word, I dept smiling.

③though可用作副词,意为“然而”,常用逗号与句子分开。although则不能这样使用,它只作连词。例如:It was a quiet party, I had a good time, though.

6、once作副词译“曾经”,作为连词译“一旦”,引导条件状语从句。相当于if的加强形式。例如:I don’t believe he was once a thief. (once这里是副词)/ Once Aristotle had made up his mind that heavy objects always fell faster than light objects, he taught it as a truth to his students. (once连词)

7、unless引导条件状语从句等于if … not …。例如:He’ll accept the job unless the salary is too low. ( = He’ll accept the job if the salary is not too low.)

8、在用as if引导的方式状语从句及表语从句中,根据情况要使用虚拟语气。例如:He talks as if he knew all about it. 但有时也可用直陈语气。例如:It looks as if it is going to rain.

9、whether, if引导从句的用法区别:

①引导主语从句、表语从句或同位语从句时,用whether,不用if。例如:Whether they will go to the Great Wall is not known./ The question is whether we can finish the task on time./ The question whether we will take part in the physics contest has not been decided.

②whether可接不定式,而if则不可。例如:I haven’t decided whether to leave or not.

③whether可作介词的宾语或置于句首表示强调,而if则不可。例如:Everything depends on whether we have enough money./ Whether he will come, I am not sure.

④whether和if均可引导宾语从句, whether引导的宾语从句一般都是肯定句,if引导的宾语从句可以是肯定的,也可以是否定的(此时不能用whether),例如:Could you tell us whether/ if it rains in winter in Australia?/ I wonder if it doesn’t rain.

⑤引导宾语从句的whether和if常可与or not连用。连用时要注意or not的位置,它一般与 whether、if分开使用,有时它可与whether合起来使用,但不能与if合起来使用。例如:I don’t know whether/ if they will come or not./ I don’t know whether or not they will come.

⑥if可用来引导条件状语从句,译“如果”,whether则不行。例如:If you work hard, you are sure to succeed.

10、as作从属连词可引导多种状语从句

①as引导时间状语从句,意为“当…时”。例如:As (he was) a young man, he was a storekeeper and later a postmaster./ He sang as he worked. 

②as引导方式状语从句,意为“象…一样”。例如:We must do as the Party teaches us.

③as引导原因状语从句。意为“由于”,例如:As you are tired, you had better rest. 

④as引导让步状语从句。意为“虽然”、“尽管”Child as he is, he can do it well. ( = Although he is a child, he can do it well.) 另外,as做为关系代词还可以引导定语从句,如:I have the same book as you.

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