中学英语网 - 英语教育资源门户手机版旧版
当前位置:首页 > 高考 > 高考语法 > 资料详情

高考语法

高考英语语法:人称代词

人称代词 一、人称代词的指代介绍 1. 第一人称单数I代表说话者,复数we代表说话者一方(两人或两人以上或一个集体),有时也包括听话者,也可以...

人称代词

一、人称代词的指代介绍

1.  第一人称单数I代表说话者,复数we代表说话者一方(两人或两人以上或一个集体),有时也包括听话者,也可以用来泛指大家。

I beg your pardon, is this your handbag? 对不起,这是你的手提袋吗? 

We walked together up the garden path. 我们一起沿着园中小径漫步。

We all get into trouble sometimes. 我们有时都会遇到麻烦。

We should show respect for old people. 人人都应该尊敬老人。

2.  第二人称单、复数you代表听话者或对方(两人或两人以上),也可以用来泛指大家。

I don't think you have known each other.  I'd like to make an introduction for you.  我想你们不认识吧。我想为你们介绍一下。

When you are swimming, it's best to play it safe and not go too far from the shore. 游泳时最好稳当一些,不要离岸太远。

I choose you three, the rest of you can stay here. 我选你们三个,其余的人可以留在这里。

3.  第三人称单数阳性he代表已提到过的男人;阴性she代表已提到过的女人;中性it代表已提到过的一件事(物)。

“Where's John? ”“He's gone to the cinema. ”“约翰在哪儿?”“他去看电影了。”

“Where's Charlotte? ”“She's outside sunbathing. ”“夏洛特在哪儿?”“她在外边晒太阳。”

I love swimming. It keeps me fit. 我喜欢游泳。它能使我保持健康。

4.  he可以泛指大家,常与who连用,其复数形式those who也有相同用法;she还可以代表月亮、船只、国家和车辆等;it还可指代婴儿、不明或不愿说出性别的人,也可用作非人称代词指时间、天气以及环境等。

He who hesitates is lost. 当断不断必受其乱。

He who has no shame has no conscience. 不知羞耻的人不知自疚。

Those who sell out to the enemy should be severely punished. 投降者应受严惩。

“What's wrong with the car? ”“She won't start. ”“这辆车出了什么毛病? ”“它发动不起来。”

She's a fine ship. 这是一艘很不错的船。

Our country needs strong leaders:may she always have them! 我国需要强有力的领导人物,但愿祖国永远有这样的人!

It's a lovely baby. 宝宝真可爱。

It is half past three now. 现在是三点半。

5.  they常用来代表已提到过的一些人或一些事(物),还常用来指属于某一时代、某一地区或某一机关等的人,目的是为了避免使用被动语态。they还常用来指代不愿指明或无法指明的人。

John and Susan phoned. They're coming round this evening. 约翰和苏珊来电话了。他们今晚要来。

“Where are the plates? ”“They are in the cupboard. ”“盘子在哪儿?”“在碗橱里。”

They grow much maize in this part of the country. 该国的这一地区种了许多玉米。

Do they teach Japanese in your school? 你们学校教日语吗? 

They no longer have to take on large numbers of temporary workers to do the harvesting. 他们再也不必雇用大量临时工来收割庄稼了。

They say he has gone to Beijing. 人家说他已经到北京去了。

They say it is going to be a hot summer. 据说即将来临的会是一个炎热的夏天。

二、人称代词的格

1.  人称代词用作主语时用主格, 用作宾语时用宾格。

I have to cash my check at the bank before it closes at 4. 我要在4点钟银行关门前把我的支票兑换成现金。

He sent me a New Year card. 他送给我一张新年贺卡。

2.  人称代词单独使用时,一般不用主格而用宾格。

—It was a lot of hard work.  But I'm glad I did it. 这项工作很不容易。但是我很高兴我做到了。

—Me too. 我也是。

3.  人称代词在句中作表语时,一般用宾格。如有who或that引导的从句,则常用主格。

Oh,it's you. 哦,是你呀。

Are you sure it was him? 你能肯定是他吗? 

It's I who did it. 的确是我做的。

4.  人称代词用于as和than之后,如果as和than用作介词,也往往用宾格;如果as和than用作连词,则须用主格。

Edward is as good a student as him. 爱德华和他一样是个好学生。

If I were him,I would have had the car insured as soon as I bought it. 如果我是他的话,一买车我就会给它上保险。

Jacelin is younger than me. 杰斯林比我年轻。

It's much more difficult than I had expected and there is only three days left. 它比我想象中难得多,而且只剩下3天时间了。

5.  在感叹句和疑问句中,人称代词宾格可用作主语,起强调作用。

Me get caught? 我会被逮住? /Him go to the States! 他怎会去美国!

三、人称代词并列使用时的顺序

1.  人称代词的排列顺序为单数人称代词通常按“二三一”排列,即you, he and I;复数人称代词通常按“一二三”排列,即 we, you and they:

You, he and I are of the same age.  你,他和我都是同一年龄。

We , you and they are all good citizens.  我们,你们和他们都是好公民。

但若是用于承担责任或错误等场合,则可把第一人称 I 置于其他人称代词之前:

I and Tom are to blame.  我和汤姆该受批评。

比较:Tom and I hope to go there.  汤姆和我想去那儿。

但是,you and I 是固定结构,语序通常不宜颠倒。 

2.  人称代词与名词的排序在通常情况下,人称代词在句子中出现在它所代替的名词之后,即先出现名词,再出现相应的代词。但是,在书面语中,有时也可出现代词,后出现代词所代替的名词:

As soon as it had hopped off, the plane picked up speed.  飞机刚一起飞,就加了速。(比较:As soon as the plane had hopped off, it picked up speed. )

3.  人称代词后跟名词同位语,有些人称代词后有时可跟同位语:

These small desks are for us students.  这些小课桌是给我们学生的。

We girls often go to the movies together.  我们女孩子常一起去看电影。

He asked you boys to be quiet.  他要你们男孩子安静些。

四、人称代词用作引导词的it

1.  用作形式主语,代替由动词不定式(短语)及其复合结构、动名词(短语)或主语从句等充当的真正主语。

It is a good habit to eat slowly. 细嚼慢咽是个好习惯。

It is a delight for her to watch her daughter dance in the show. 对她来说,观看女儿在节目中表演舞蹈是件乐事。

It is no use talking without doing. 光说不做是没有用的。

It has been a great honour your coming to visit me. 你的来访是我莫大的荣幸。

It seems strange that she should go from me. 看起来好像很奇怪,她竟会离我而去。

2.  用作形式宾语,代替由动词不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或宾语从句等充当的真正宾语。

He makes it a habit to take a walk after lunch. 他每次午饭后总要去散散步。

I consider it useless discussing the matter with them. 我认为和他们讨论这件事没有用。

You must find it exciting working here. 你一定发现在此工作是激动人心的。

She considered it important that everything should be finished by eight. 她认为在八点以前把所有的事情完成很重要。

3.  用于强调句型中。

It was Alexander who wore his best suit to the dance last night. 是亚历山大昨晚穿着他最好的一套衣服去参加舞会。

It was last night Alexander wore his best suit to the dance. 亚历山大是在昨晚穿着他最好的一套衣服去参加舞会的。

It was to the dance that Alexander wore his best suit last night. 亚历山大昨晚穿着他最好的一套衣服是去参加舞会。

It was because he wanted to buy a basketball that he went to town yesterday. 他昨天是由于想买个篮球而进城的。

文章评论

表情

共 0 条评论,查看全部
  • 这篇文章还没有收到评论,赶紧来抢沙发吧~