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高考英语语法:指示代词

一、指示代词this/these/that/those用法近指this(这个)these(这些);远指that(那个)those(那些)。1. this/these指近的事物,that/those指远...

一、指示代词this/these/that/those用法

近指this(这个)these(这些);远指that(那个)those(那些)。

1. this/these指近的事物,that/those指远的事物,如指空间的远近、事件的前后等。 

This building was designed by an American architect.这栋大楼是一位美国设计师设计的。

That building differs greatly from this one.那幢房子跟这一幢大不相同。

The price of food reached a new high this week.食物价格已经达到本周最高。

The weather was clear that day.那天天气晴朗。

There are no rooms free in our hotel these days.我们旅店这几天没有空房间。

In those days they could hardly keep alive.那时候,他们简直没法活下去。 

2.指叙述事物的前后,that指前,this指后。 

She is tactful,but I couldn't call him that.她很机智,而对他我就不能那样说了。

At our factory there are a few machines similar to those described in this magazine.我们工厂有几台机器和这本杂志上所讲述的相似。

What I have to say to you is this:if you don't break off drinking for good,you'll be sorry pretty soon.我必须向你说明的是:如果你不彻底戒酒的话,你很快就会后悔的。

Now hear this: meeting of all officers in the wardroom in ten minutes.现在大家注意听着,全体军官10分钟后在饭厅集合。 

3. this和that可以指在电话中交谈的对方,或像it一样用来辨认某人是谁。 

Hello. This is Joe.Who is that speaking? 嗨,我是乔。请问您是谁?

“Who is that?”“It's Miss Clark.”“那是谁?”“是克拉克小姐。” 

4. that和those可用来指代前面出现的名词,以避免重复。 

The price of tin is higher than that of copper.锡价比铜价高。

The pressure inside the container is much greater than that outside the container.容器内部的压力要远大于外部的压力。

The colour of these curtains is the same as that of the rug.这些窗帘的颜色与地毯的颜色一样。

These machines are much better than those we bought last year.这些机器比我们去年买的那些要好得多。 

5. “and this”和“and that”也可以用来指前面提到的事,以避免重复。 

The pressure of the water turns this wheel,and this is used to make electric power.水压驱动这个轮子从而产生电力。

I'll telephone and that will save me writing a letter.我要打电话就不用写信了。 

6. this和that可并列使用,表示确定的对象。 

From that station to this is a distance of exactly thirty miles.那一站与这一站相距整整30英里。

Which do you prefer,this or that?你更喜欢哪个,这个还是那个? 

7. 用于固定习语中。 

8. The women stood in the marketplace,gossiping about this and that.那些女人站在集市上说三道四。

I quarrelled with my wife just now, that's all right.我刚与妻子发生了一点口角,不过没什么。

He has many faults,but for all that I like him.他有许多缺点,尽管如此,我仍喜欢他。 

What would you hope for more than that?除此之外你还希望什么呢?

二、指示代词such的用法

1. such+单数或复数名词 

He is such a man.他竟是这样一个人。

I wonder how he dared to say such a thing.我奇怪他怎么敢说这样的话。

I can't afford to buy such an expensive watch.这样名贵的表我可买不起。

Everyone was indoors on such a night.在这样的晚上大家都呆在室内。

Such books may be had at any bookstore.这种书可以在任何书店里买到。

Such men don't count for anything.这样的人毫不足取。 

2. no/one/another/some/many/all...+such+名词 

As far as I know,there is no such thing.据我了解,没有这样的事。

One such grammar book is enough.一本这样的语法书就足够了。

Some such stories were told to me years ago.几年前我就听过一些这类故事。

Any such request is sure to be turned down.任何这类要求肯定会碰壁。 

2. such a+形容词+名词 

I never saw such an energetic man.我从没见过精力这么充沛的人。

On such a nice day,we should get out and take the air.天气这么好,我们应该到户外散散步。 

3. such as 

We dislike people such as him.我们不喜欢像他这号人。

A plan such as you proposed will never succeed.像你提出的这种计划永远不会成功的。

Things such as diamonds are expensive to buy.买钻石这类的东西是很贵的。

Many words are compounds, such as blackboard, and so on.许多词是复合词, 如blackboard,等等。 

4. such...(that) 

The child had such a fever (that) he nearly died.这孩子发烧这么厉害,差点儿死掉。

There was such a crowd round the distinguished visitor that I could not get to speak to him.那么多的人围着这位尊贵的来访者,以致我无法同他说话。

5. such用于固定习语中

We can go in my car,such as it is.我们可以坐我的车去,虽然我的车子不太好。

You can borrow my exam notes,such as they are.你可以借我的考试笔记去看,虽然它们做得不是很好。

三、指示代词the same的用法

1. the same+名词 

They eat the same food these days. 这些天他们都吃同样的食物。

We live in the same alley. 我们住在同一条小巷里。 

2. the same...as 

I live in the same house as he. 我跟他同住一所房子。

They're not in the same league as the French at making wine. 他们酿酒的水准比不上法国。

The imperial gallon is not the same size as the US one. 英制的加仑与美制的容量不同。 

3. the same...that 

I live in the same district that he lives in. 我跟他住在同一个区。

This is the same watch that I lost last night. 这正是我昨天晚上丢失的那只手表。 

4. 用于固定习语中 

All the same,there is some truth in what he says. 尽管如此,他的话也还是有些道理。

I'm much the same this evening. 我今天晚上的情况同原来差不多。

四、指示代词so的用法

1. 指示代词so常用作表语或宾语。 

It may possibly be so.也许是这样的。

I do think so.我的确是这样想的。 

2. so用在某些动词后,代替一个宾语从句,否定式中可用not代替so。这些动词有:believe, think, expect, suppose, imagine, guess, hope, be afraid等。

 “You will go swimming tomorrow, will you?” “No,I don't think so.” “你明天游泳去吗?”“不,我没有这个打算。”

“Will he come?” “I suppose so.” “他会来吗?”“我想他会来。”

“He's gone to school?” “Jenney said so.”“他去学校了吗?”“珍妮是这样说的。”

“Are you late?” “I am afraid so.” “你晚了吗?”“恐怕是晚了。”

“He is French?”“I believe not.” “他是法国人吗?”“我想不是。”

“Are you coming to our party?” “I am afraid not.” “你会来参加聚会吗?”“恐怕不会。” 

3. so代替宾语从句表示消息来源,放在句首。 

 “Joan is getting married.” “So I heard.” “琼要结婚了。”“我听说了。”

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